What prevents you from using Docker? Anyway, you can run Slicer on Windows/Linux/MacOS directly on the host without a container.
Then, you can either set up a VNC server and expose that through a web server (that’s what some of the Slicer docker containers do); or access selected functions (such as slice browsing) using @pieper’s SlicerWeb.
Note also that if you don’t use Docker you can still do all the VNC or SlicerWeb stuff, it just requires running the same code natively on your computer and that may mean you cannot do anything else useful with the computer at the same time. The Docker approach basically just turns it into a background service.